1. WordPress security at the Configuration and installation level
This section explains measures to be taken for achieving wordpress security while installing and configuring wordpress.
1.1 Change default table prefix
Many published WordPress-specific SQL-injection attacks make the assumption that the tableprefix is wp, the default. Changing this can block at least some SQL injection attacks.
1.2 Securing wp-config.php
Are you aware that wp-config.php can be stored one directory level above the WordPress installation?
This is quite a simple task. Also, make sure that only you (and the web server) can read this file (it generally means a 400 or 440 permission). This file contains quite sensitive information like password, database user etc so it’s very imp to protect this file
1.3 Disable File Editing through WordPress Dashboard
The WordPress Dashboard by default allows administrators to edit PHP files, such as plugin and theme files. This is often the first tool an attacker will use if able to login, since it allows code execution. WordPress has a constant to disable editing from Dashboard.
Add below line in wp-config.php
Disable file editing
1.4 Blocking Search Engine Spiders from Indexing the Admin Section
Search engine spiders crawl over your entire blog and index every content. Using robots.txt file we can restrict the content which we would like to be indexed by Search engines. Obviously the admin section is not required to be indexed. Just create a file named robots.txt in your root folder (generally public_html) folder and paste below contents in that file.
Login with a subscriber account regularly to check of any of your plugins have created any unnecessary administrative links which are not supposed to be accessed by subscribers
1.7 Keep your wordpress and plugins uptodate with latest versions
Latest wordpress version mostly has fixes related to recent security vulnerabilities. It is very important to update your wordpress installation as soon as a new version is released. The same follows for plugins. However plugins security is mostly upto the author so it is very important to select a secure plugin.
1.8 Change the default login URL
WordPress default login URL is http://www.yoursite.com/wp-login.php
A hacker who wants to break in to you site typically uses Brute Force technique on this URL. Brute Force in this case means a script which will automatically try various usename/password combinations on your login URL. You would think that you are safe because your firewall is set to track this particular activity and would just block the IP. Howerver the hackers are one step ahead. They keep trying this script from various IPs. So if one IP is blocked the script automatically runs from a different IP. Also the script is set to run at regular intervals to avoid any DDoS alarlms
To avoid such scripts attacking your login page, just change/redirect your login page to some secret page e.g. http://www.yoursite.com/entermysite. That way you would protect yourself from such automated scripts trying to Brute Force your authentication.
To change your login page just install the plugin Rename wp-login.php and on the settings page on this page provide your new URL.
Often there is requirement to create your own PHP application and generally most people tend to install a plugin which allows to run PHP code snippets as it is much easier to do so.
Although this approach may seem ok it may not be ideal. Lot of times people use this approach because they do not know how to create plugin for the same in WordPress.
Actually it is much easier to create wordpress plugin than you think.
I understand it may take a bit longer to create a plugin than just writing a PHP code snippet. However the difference is not that big.
Creating your own WordPress plugin for your requirement works out better in the long run
It allows you to deactivate as soon as you feel you do not need the code to run on your site
You are in total control of the code.
If the PHP plugin which allows you to run your PHP code snippets stops providing support or is no longer maintained then you need to find another plugin and move all your code to the other plugin. This means lot of your applications may break in the meantime.
Here is one simple solution to create wordpress plugin to run our small PHP code snippet.
First of all create a folder in your plugin folder where the plugin files will reside e.g. my_php_code_snippet
Create a main plugin file inside the folder called as plugin.php with below content
PHP Code Snippet Plugin Main file
Plugin Name: My PHP Code Snippet
Description: This plugin allows me to write my own PHP code snippet
Tested up to: WPMU 4.4
License: GNU General Public License 2.0 (GPL) http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html
There are a few reasons why this error occurs. The most obvious is your server is down or a certain process is taking too long and your server is very busy. However that may not be the most likely reason for this error especially if this is happening quite frequently. Here are the 2 most likely reasons.
When your website goes on clouflare, most of the incoming connections to your website are through the cloudflare IPs. If your server does not know about cloudflare IPs, its internal firewall limits access to any connections through those IPs simply because of the number of connections. So it is very important for your server firewall to whitelist those IPs. (Just to tell your server that connections through these IPs are ok). These IPs can be found on the cloudflare site: https://www.cloudflare.com/ips
You may have tried something which may have triggered some rule set within the clouflare firewall. This block is only limited to you and mostly for a certain time duration. However if you are a developer or are maintaining the website then you need to whitelist your IP by adding it to your IP firewall within the firewall settings on your cloudflare. If you are on a dongle or a network with frequent IP changes then you may need to do this a few times. In that case better to add a range of IP.